The TRIPS Agreement, or the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, is an international legal framework that sets standards for the protection of intellectual property in the global trading system. It was established in 1994 as part of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and has been ratified by more than 160 countries.

Article 2.1 of the TRIPS Agreement lays out the basic principles of intellectual property protection. It states that the purpose of the agreement is to “promote effective and adequate protection of intellectual property rights” while ensuring that such protection does not become a barrier to trade. This means that countries must strike a balance between protecting the rights of intellectual property owners and ensuring that access to essential goods and services is not restricted.

One of the key aspects of Article 2.1 is the recognition that intellectual property rights are crucial for encouraging innovation and creativity. Intellectual property rights give creators and innovators the ability to profit from their work and invest in further research and development. Without proper protection, there would be no incentive to create new products or ideas.

However, Article 2.1 also recognizes that intellectual property protection must be balanced against other important societal values. For example, access to essential medicines is a vital public health concern, and intellectual property protection should not impede access to life-saving treatments. Similarly, access to education and information must be protected, even if it means limiting certain intellectual property protections.

Article 2.1 also emphasizes the importance of international cooperation in promoting effective and adequate intellectual property protection. Countries must work together to establish common standards and guidelines for protecting intellectual property, and must ensure that these standards are effectively enforced across borders.

Overall, Article 2.1 of the TRIPS Agreement establishes a framework for balancing the need for intellectual property protection with the need for access to essential goods and services. By recognizing the importance of both intellectual property rights and other societal values, this article promotes a more balanced and equitable trading system.